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Military Leadership - Recent


Leadership and the military are practically inseparable. Military leadership and leadership development are foundational concepts for Army personnel. It permeates military culture beginning with every recruit learning the leadership-oriented Warrior Ethos to the leader development programs offered to the Army’s general officers. It is no surprise, then, that SSI conducts research on military leadership, leadership development, and the military culture. Dr. Leonard Wong is our military leadership specialist.

New References from the Military Education Research Library Network

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    Added April 30, 2015

    Stand Up and Fight! The Creation of U.S. Security Organizations, 1942-2005

    Edited by Colonel Ty Seidule, Dr. Jacqueline E. Whitt.
    View the Executive Summary

    Stand Up and Fight is a collection of essays that explores how new National Security Organizations are stood up—that is, formed, organized, funded, and managed—in the first years of their existence. From Joint ventures to combatant commands to cabinet-level departments, each organization’s history reveals important themes and lessons for leaders to consider in forming a new organization.

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    Added March 12, 2015

    The Army War College Review Vol. 1 No.1

    Edited by Dr. Larry D Miller.
    The Army War College Review, a refereed publication of student work, is produced under the purview of the Strategic Studies Institute and the United States Army War College. An electronic quarterly, The AWC Review connects student intellectual work with professionals invested in U.S. national security, Landpower, strategic leadership, global security studies, and the advancement of the profession of arms.

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    Added February 17, 2015

    Lying to Ourselves: Dishonesty in the Army Profession

    Authored by Dr. Leonard Wong, Dr. Stephen J. Gerras.
    View the Executive Summary

    Untruthfulness is surprisingly common in the U.S. military even though members of the profession are loath to admit it. Further, much of the deception and dishonesty that occurs in the profession of arms is actually encouraged and sanctioned by the military institution.

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    Added January 13, 2015

    Getting to the Left of SHARP: Lessons Learned from West Point's Efforts to Combat Sexual Harassment and Assault

    Authored by Lieutenant General Robert L. Caslen, Jr., Colonel Cindy R. Jebb, Lieutenant Colonel Daniel Gade, Cadet Hope C. Landsem.
    View the Executive Summary

    On July 26, 1948, President Harry Truman signed Executive Order 9981, ending the practice of segregating the military services by race. That same year, the Army allowed women to join the services on an equal basis with men. Both of these steps preceded the larger societal changes that allowed fully equal treatment of all types of American citizens in military service. Just over 2 years ago, Congress repealed the Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell policy, allowing for gays and lesbians to take their place openly in the military. While we have a long way to go, one of the hallmarks of a profession is its continued efforts to improve. To that end, this monograph shares a few of the lessons West Point has learned on the prevention of sexual harassment and assault.

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    Added January 02, 2015

    The Effective Use of Reserve Personnel in the U.S. Military: Lessons from the United Kingdom Reserve Model

    Authored by Dr. Shima D. Keene.
    View the Executive Summary

    Can the U.S. Army and other services benefit from the United Kingdom's program of reserve reform?

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    Added December 12, 2014

    Government Contracting Should be a Core Competence for U.S. Military Personnel

    Authored by Professor Katherine E. White.
    View the Executive Summary

    The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan mark an era of unprecedented outsourcing in contingency operations—in some cases leading to significant waste, fraud, and abuse. The author addresses the steps the U.S. military should take to make government contracting a core competency for both its civilian and military personnel.

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    Added November 19, 2014

    Creating an Effective Regional Alignment Strategy for the U.S. Army

    Authored by Major Raven Bukowski, Major John Childress, Lieutenant Colonel (Ret) Michael J. Colarusso, Lieutenant Colonel David S. Lyle.
    View the Executive Summary

    Despite talk about regional alignment, the Army has taken few concrete steps to prepare for this dramatic change. While enormous in its implications, the Army’s current regional alignment plan seems to be little more than directing units to “focus regionally” and aligning them with the appropriate combatant command.

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    Added September 12, 2014

    A History of the U.S. Army Officer Corps, 1900-1990

    Authored by Dr. Arthur T. Coumbe.
    View the Executive Summary

    The Army’s Office of Economic and Manpower Analysis published a series of monographs during 2009 and 2010 intended to provide a theoretical and conceptual framework for an Army Officer Corps Strategy. The present volume supplements that effort, providing an overview of some key developments and assumptions that have guided and shaped the officer corps and the way it has been managed over the last century.

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    Added September 09, 2014

    Political and Socio-Economic Change: Revolutions and Their Implications for the U.S. Military

    Edited by Dr. John R. Deni.
    View the Executive Summary

    Managing change in the international security environment—whether revolutionary or evolutionary in nature—is never an uncomplicated task. The authors address the military implications of political and social change in the Middle East, North Africa, and Latin America.

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    Added June 13, 2014

    Memorandum for the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff: Secure Balance and Flexibility In Future Joint Forces

    Authored by Mr. Nathan P. Freier.
    The 25th Annual U.S. Army War College Strategy Conference "Balancing the Joint Force to Meet Future Security Challenges" occurred against the backdrop of a complicated decision making environment. It sought establish a context for future military decision making based on two foundational questions: what are the most important military demands facing U.S./partner forces through the next decade and how should they think about confronting them? The author endeavors to describe the context that emerged here.

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    Added April 30, 2014

    A Soldier’s Morality, Religion, and Our Professional Ethic: Does the Army’s Culture Facilitate Integration, Character Development, and Trust in the Profession?

    Authored by Dr. Don M. Snider, COL (USA Ret) Alexander P. Shine.
    View the Executive Summary

    Are the Stewards of the Army Profession developing a culture that fosters the necessary integration of Soldiers' personal moralities with the Profession's Ethic? The authors suggest that they are not.

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    Added February 14, 2014

    Senior Officer Talent Management: Fostering Institutional Adaptability

    Authored by Lieutenant Colonel (Ret) Michael J. Colarusso, Lieutenant Colonel David S. Lyle.
    View the Executive Summary

    Former Secretary of Defense Robert Gates characterized the "greatest challenges facing the Army" as the "institutional and bureaucratic constipation" of its officer management systems. In this book, Mike Colarusso and Dave Lyle examine the Army's industrial-era personnel practices and prescribe a senior officer talent management approach that they believe is better suited to the demands of tomorrow.

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    Added October 28, 2013

    Changing Minds In The Army: Why It Is So Difficult and What To Do About It

    Authored by Dr. Stephen J. Gerras, Dr. Leonard Wong.
    View the Executive Summary

    In a time of extraordinary fiscal and national security uncertainty, it seems naïve to assume that all, or even most, of a strategic leader’s current assumptions will be just as relevant several years into the future. This monograph highlights the need for Army senior leaders, in the midst of change, to periodically question their deep-seated beliefs on critical issues—and perhaps change their minds—rather than relying solely on what they have long believed to be true.

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    Added September 19, 2013

    Closing the Candor Chasm: The Missing Element of Army Professionalism

    Authored by Colonel Paul Paolozzi.
    View the Executive Summary

    If transparency and forthright communication are valued within the Army, why is candor nearly absent in doctrine and supporting literature? Stewards of the Profession build trust through authentic communication—educated, trained, and modeled in application. Candor cannot be muted, creating a chasm between what is espoused and communicated.

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    Added August 21, 2013

    2013-14 Key Strategic Issues List

    Edited by Professor John F. Troxell.
    For several years, the Strategic Studies Institute has annually published the Key Strategic Issues List (KSIL). The overall purpose of this document is to make students and other researchers aware of strategic topics that are of special interest to the U.S. Army. Part I of KSIL is entitled "Army Priorities for Strategic Analysis" (APSA) and is a list of high-priority topics submitted by Headquarters, Department of the Army. Part II is entitled "Command Sponsored Topics" and represents the high-priority command-specific topics submitted by MACOMs and ASCCs. This KSIL provides military and civilian researchers worldwide a listing of the Army's most critical national security issues.

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    Added July 24, 2013

    A Framework for Restructuring the Military Retirement System

    Authored by Roy A. Wallace, Lieutenant Colonel David S. Lyle, Dr. John Z. Smith.
    View the Executive Summary

    The current military retirement system has been integral to sustaining the All Volunteer Force. Current federal budget challenges have raised concern that this program may become fiscally unsustainable.

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    Added November 02, 2012

    Beyond the Battlefield: Institutional Army Transformation Following Victory in Iraq

    Authored by Lieutenant Colonel G. Scott Taylor.
    Learning lessons from past conflicts is essential to avoid repeating the same mistakes in future wars. Even more important, it is critical to apply those lessons to institutional change to inculcate the lessons of the past conflict–this Paper highlights some of the author’s observations on changes that should be integrated into the institutional Army to ensure that the hard-earned lessons of counterinsurgency fighting and stability operations achieved in the sands of Iraq and hills of Afghanistan are not lost over the years ahead as we withdraw from Iraq and Afghanistan.

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    Added October 12, 2012

    A "Hollow Army" Reappraised: President Carter, Defense Budgets, and the Politics of Military Readiness

    Authored by Professor Frank L. Jones.
    For more than 30 years, the term “hollow army” has represented President Carter’s alleged willingness to allow American military capability to deteriorate in the face of growing Soviet capability. The true story is more complicated than the metaphor suggests.

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    Added September 21, 2012

    Finding "The Right Way": Toward an Army Institutional Ethic

    Authored by LTC Clark C. Barrett.
    This monograph suggests the U.S. Army profession’s most worrisome cultural shortcoming is the lack of a codified institutional ethic and a means of peer-to-peer self-governance. This paper describes the problem, provides a review of the literature, and supplies and justifies a proposed institutional and individual Army Ethic.

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    Added August 01, 2012

    2012-13 Key Strategic Issues List

    Edited by Dr. Antulio J. Echevarria, II.
    The purpose of the Key Strategic Issues List is to provide military and civilian researchers a ready reference for issues of special interest to the Department of the Army and the Department of Defense.

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    Added February 08, 2012

    Once Again, the Challenge to the U.S. Army During a Defense Reduction: To Remain a Military Profession

    Authored by Dr. Don M. Snider.
    The exact shape of the recently initiated Department of Defense reductions and the defense strategy that our down-sized land forces are to execute in the future are only now becoming clear. How can the U.S. Army best meet these challenges?

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    Added December 16, 2011

    Real Leadership and the U.S. Army: Overcoming a Failure of Imagination to Conduct Adaptive Work

    Authored by Colonel John B. Richardson, IV.
    This is a case study of a cavalry squadron struggling with operational adaptability. Through this struggle, the study provides a means for analyzing the complexity of organizational leadership in the contemporary security environment. The case study provides an example where hard fought lessons learned resulted in a more holistic approach to leadership, because the leader transcended that of simply being an authority figure, and instead, become a real leader who provided a safe and creative learning environment where the organization was able to tackle and solve complex problems.

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    Added July 08, 2011

    The New Aztecs: Ritual and Restraint in Contemporary Western Military Operations

    Authored by Dr. Zhivan Alach.
    The Western way of war has come full circle. After centuries, indeed millennia, of evolution toward increased totality and brutality, it has turned back once again to the ritualistic and restrained methods of primitive warfare.

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    Added June 08, 2011

    Defining Command, Leadership, and Management Success Factors within Stability Operations

    Authored by Major Dave Fielder.
    Stabilization operations have been present across the globe for centuries in many forms. But how have the command, leadership, and management of these operations manifested themselves, and what are the success attributes within this field of study?

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    Added April 08, 2011

    Army Strong--Really?

    Authored by COL (R) Charles D. Allen, COL (R) Charles D. Allen.
    The author outlines the past, present, and future of the Profession of Arms.

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    Added March 29, 2011

    Resolving Ethical Challenges in an Era of Persistent Conflict

    Authored by Colonel Tony Pfaff.
    In this provocative monograph, COL Tony Pfaff argues that the challenges of combating irregular threats have fundamentally challenged the traditional “ethics of war,” and he offers a number of measures and policies that the Army must adopt if it is to not only successfully, but ethically, respond to these challenges.

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    Added March 28, 2011

    Junior Leader Professional Development — Who Has the Time?

    Authored by Dr. Steven Metz.
    Each month a member of the SSI faculty writes an editorial for our monthly newsletter. This is the Op-Ed for the April 2011 newsletter.

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    Added March 10, 2011

    Profession of Arms Study Trust Review

    Authored by COL (R) Charles D. Allen.
    Since trust is the coin of the realm for an Army in a democratic society, it is important that as the Profession of Arms study proceeds that it includes a broad exploration of just what exactly the Army as profession means by the concept of trust.

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    Added March 10, 2011

    Should ROTC Return to the Ivy League?

    Authored by LTC Ernest A. Szabo.
    Each month a member of the SSI faculty writes an editorial for our monthly newsletter. This is the Op-Ed for the March 2011 newsletter.

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    Added March 01, 2011

    Civilian Skills for African Military Officers to Resolve the Infrastructure, Economic Development, and Stability Crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Authored by Diane E. Chido.
    Military retirees in many African countries face uncertain futures. The author suggests that USAFRICOM should include robust engineering programs as a part of its training approach for the region, thereby providing valuable opportunities for retiring service members, improving civil-military relationships, and enhancing economic development and stability.

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    Added September 10, 2010

    An Army Transformed: The U.S. Army's Post-Vietnam Recovery and the Dynamics of Change in Military Organizations

    Authored by Lieutenant Colonel Suzanne C. Nielsen.
    Drawing on the literature on military innovation and reform, the author examines an important case of military change: the transformation of the U.S. Army in the 2 decades preceding the Persian Gulf War of 1991. The findings of this study have significant implications for how the U.S. Army should think about implementing changes needed today to meet new strategic, economic, and technological challenges.

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    Added September 02, 2010

    Is the Organizational Culture of the U.S. Army Congruent with the Professional Development of Its Senior Level Officer Corps?

    Authored by Dr. James G. Pierce.
    In this study of the organizational culture of the U.S. Army, Dr. Pierce has reviewed a previously assumed but unverified connection between organizational culture and professional development. The study has uncovered a lack of congruence between the dominant type of organizational culture of the U.S. Army and the professional managerial/leadership skills of its senior level leaders. This observed lack of congruence may be inhibiting performance and unconsciously perpetuating a cycle of caution and an overreliance on stability and control. The data indicate that the U.S. Army is illustrative of an organization that emphasizes stability and control, and one that attempts to comprehend the ambiguity of the future through an unconscious reliance upon the successful solutions employed in the past.

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    Added September 02, 2010

    Lessons Learned – 13 Months as the Senior Military Advisor to the Minister of Interior

    Authored by COL Kevin J. Palgutt.
    In recounting his experiences as a senior advisor to the Afghan Minister of Interior, COL Palgutt indicates that it is a shame that many senior advisors will go on to new duty assignments that will have nothing to do with the experiences that were learned during their 12+ months of senior advisor duty.

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    Added August 05, 2010

    Organizing to Compete in the Political Terrain

    Authored by Dr. Nadia Schadlow.
    The degree to which military forces can and should shape the political landscape during war--that is, who rules contested territory--is at the root of several ongoing debates about how to restructure the U.S. Army. Decisions about the military's appropriate role in shaping political outcomes in war are fundamental to resolving these debates and will determine the degree of organizational and educational changes that the U.S. Army must make to meet current and future security threats.

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    Added July 20, 2010

    Got Vision? Unity of Vision in Policy and Strategy: What It Is and Why We Need It

    Authored by Dr. Anna Simons.
    Having the right "who" to devise strategy is critical to success in counterinsurgency or any asymmetric, cross-cultural encounter. This monograph contends that if we do not get the "who" right, none of the "whats," in terms of what we do, matters.

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    Added July 08, 2010

    Enter the Era of Persistent Competition for Talent

    Authored by COL Carolyn F. Kleiner.
    Each month a member of the SSI faculty writes an editorial for our monthly newsletter. This is the Op-Ed for the July 2010 newsletter.

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    Added May 10, 2010

    Untangling a New Gordian Knot: Don't Ask, Don’t Tell, and Alexander’s Sword

    Authored by Dr. Leonard Wong, Professor Douglas C. Lovelace, Jr..
    Each month a member of the SSI faculty writes an editorial for our monthly newsletter. This is the Op-Ed for the May 2010 newsletter.

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    Added May 05, 2010

    Towards a U.S. Army Officer Corps Strategy for Success: Employing Talent

    Authored by Colonel Casey Wardynski, Lieutenant Colonel David S. Lyle, Lieutenant Colonel (Ret) Michael J. Colarusso.
    Historically, the U.S. Army has employed its officers to good effect, but is there need for improvement? Does its current assignments paradigm lead to optimal career satisfaction and productivity? Does it allow officers to develop the depth and breadth of talent the Army needs? Perhaps most importantly, does the Army really know enough about the officer talent it possesses, as well as the requirements for that talent?

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    Added March 29, 2010

    Towards a U.S. Army Officer Corps Strategy for Success: Developing Talent

    Authored by Colonel Casey Wardynski, Lieutenant Colonel David S. Lyle, Lieutenant Colonel (Ret) Michael J. Colarusso.
    The U.S. Army is almost universally acknowledged as an organization that powerfully develops talent in areas such as leadership, teamwork behavior, work ethics, adaptability, fitness, and many others. Employers know that the Army invests substantially in its people, and that this investment translates directly into enhanced productivity. Despite this well-earned reputation, however, are the Army’s current officer development programs equal to tomorrow’s challenges? Does it suffer from a growing imbalance in talent supply versus demand? Perhaps most importantly, is there an effective relationship between its developmental and employment strategies?

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    Added February 19, 2010

    Accessing Talent: The Foundation of a U.S. Army Officer Corps Strategy

    Authored by Colonel Casey Wardynski, Lieutenant Colonel David S. Lyle, Lieutenant Colonel (Ret) Michael J. Colarusso.
    Organizations often focus their recruiting efforts on high-payoff markets--how does the Army identify the right market in which to focus its officer accessions efforts? What role does education play in officer accessions? How does the Army identify and go about meeting its officer diversity requirements? Why is establishing the proper ratio between commissioning sources so important?

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    Added February 03, 2010

    A Death Knell for "Don't Ask, Don't Tell"

    Authored by Professor John R. Martin.
    Each month a member of the SSI faculty writes an editorial for our monthly newsletter. This is the Op-Ed for the February 2010 newsletter.

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    Added February 01, 2010

    The Army Officers' Professional Ethic--Past, Present, and Future

    Authored by Colonel Matthew Moten.
    Do you think the Army officer corps needs a clear statement of its professional ethic? Colonel Matthew Moten does, and he has written it in one page. Join the debate.

    NB:
    In the Fall of 2013, the author of this monograph, Army Colonel Matthew Moten, chose to retire amid reports of his reprimand for misconduct and removal as head of the U.S. Military Academy's History Department, following an investigation of allegations made against him. Published in 2010, this monograph presents the results of Colonel Moten's critical analysis of an issue important to the Army: deepening our understanding of what the Professional Military Ethic means to the profession today. The monograph remains a solid contribution to the dialogue among professionals the Army leadership sought to ignite. In particular, readers should note well Moten's closing paragraphs:

    "Before the Army accepts such a statement of its professional ethic, much debate is in order. Should we use hard phrases such as "total accountability" and "unlimited liability?" What are officers' core responsibilities as leaders and how far do they extend?

    How concisely should we explicate our adherence to the principle of civilian control? Should we espouse nonpartisanship as part of our ethic? The debate required to answer such questions will provide impetus for an Army-wide discussion about the profession, its ethical values, and the role that it should play as a servant of American society in the future. Let it begin."

    We, at the U.S. Army War College believe the conversation on the Army's professional ethic must continue, and still find value in Moten's 2010 work, notwithstanding the situation that led to his relief.

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    Added January 28, 2010

    The Effects of Multiple Deployments on Army Adolescents

    Authored by Dr. Leonard Wong, Dr. Stephen J. Gerras.
    Frequent U.S. Army deployments increase the burden on children who must face the stress and strain of separation and anxiety. The authors take a much-needed, detailed look at the effects of multiple deployments on Army adolescents.

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    Added January 15, 2010

    Towards a U.S. Army Officer Corps Strategy for Success: Retaining Talent

    Authored by Colonel Casey Wardynski, Lieutenant Colonel David S. Lyle, Lieutenant Colonel (Ret) Michael J. Colarusso.
    Why have Army junior officer retention rates plummeted since 1983? Are the root causes truly understood? What are the long term consequences of failing to retain talented young officers? What steps has the Army taken to meet this challenge, and how effective have they been? What must the Army do to restore junior officer retention rates to previously healthy levels?

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    Added November 25, 2009

    Leadership and National Security Reform Conference

    Authored by Dr. Joseph R. Cerami, Dr. Jeffrey A. Engel, Lindsey K. Pavelka.
    The need for significant changes in leader development and government reform to improve the alignment, coordination, integration, and interoperability among largely autonomous U.S. Government agencies was addressed. The two conference panels were challenged to discuss leadership in a broader sense rather than focusing solely at the top, or on presidential leadership.

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    Added October 28, 2009

    Schools for Strategy: Teaching Strategy for 21st Century Conflict

    Authored by Dr. Colin S. Gray.
    Education in strategy is feasible and important. Few would-be strategists are beyond improvement by some formal education. However, for such education to be well-directed, it needs to rest upon sound assumptions concerning the eternal nature yet ever shifting character, meaning, and function of strategy, and the range of behaviors required for effective strategic performance.

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    Added October 28, 2009

    Talent: Implications for a U.S. Army Officer Corps Strategy

    Authored by Colonel Casey Wardynski, Lieutenant Colonel David S. Lyle, Lieutenant Colonel (Ret) Michael J. Colarusso.
    What is the difference between competent and talented? What is talent, and which people have it? What talents should the United States Army seek in its officers? Most importantly, what are the consequences of failing to create an officer talent management system?

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    Added October 06, 2009

    The Army's Professional Military Ethic in an Era of Persistent Conflict

    Authored by Dr. Don M. Snider, Major Paul Oh, Major Kevin Toner.
    As the character of conflict in the 21st century evolves, the Army’s strength will continue to rest on our values, our ethos, and our people. Our Soldiers and leaders must remain true to these values as they operate in increasingly complex environments where moral-ethical failures can have strategic implications.

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    Added September 24, 2009

    Iraq: Strategic Reconciliation, Targeting, and Key Leader Engagement

    Authored by Captain Jeanne F. Hull.
    Military commanders and diplomats in Iraq and Afghanistan have been meeting with important local officials since the inception of those conflicts. These engagements have aided commanders and diplomats alike in furthering their objectives by establishing productive relationships with those who know and understand Iraq’s complex human terrain best—the Iraqis. However, these engagements frequently take place on ad-hoc bases and are rarely incorporated into other counterinsurgency operations and strategies. In some cases, unit commanders fail to see the utility of using these engagements at all--an oversight that contributes to deteriorating security situations and loss of popular support.

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    Added September 16, 2009

    Baghdad ER--Revisited

    Authored by Colonel Erin P Edgar.
    The China Dragons of the 28th Combat Support Hospital deployed in support of Operation IRAQI FREEDOM from September 2006 until November 2007. Their service epitomizes the strides that have been made in military combat medicine.

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