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Military Change and Transformation

(1/23/08) The Transformation MiPAL has been updated with a press conference by the Secretary of the Army and a Government Accountability Office report, both on the plan to increase the Army's size. Please see the Recently Added Documents section for the latest on this topic - the newest updates are in bold. (View it at NDU)

Military Change and Transformation

(12/18/07) The Transformation MiPAL has been updated with a Government Accountability Office report on the Army's modular force and expansion activities, and an article from the Heritage Foundation on Army modernization and the Future Combat Systems. Please see the Recently Added Documents section for the latest on this topic - the newest updates are in bold. (View it at NDU)

Military Change and Transformation

(12/18/07) The Transformation MiPAL has been updated with a Government Accountability Office report on the Army's modular force and expansion activities, and an article from the Heritage Foundation on Army modernization and the Future Combat Systems. Please see the Recently Added Documents section for the latest on this topic - the newest updates are in bold. (View it at NDU)

Military Change and Transformation

(12/18/07) The Transformation MiPAL has been updated with a Government Accountability Office report on the Army's modular force and expansion activities, and an article from the Heritage Foundation on Army modernization and the Future Combat Systems. Please see the Recently Added Documents section for the latest on this topic - the newest updates are in bold. (View it at NDU)

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    Added April 30, 2015

    Stand Up and Fight! The Creation of U.S. Security Organizations, 1942-2005

    Edited by Colonel Ty Seidule, Dr. Jacqueline E. Whitt.
    View the Executive Summary

    Stand Up and Fight is a collection of essays that explores how new National Security Organizations are stood up—that is, formed, organized, funded, and managed—in the first years of their existence. From Joint ventures to combatant commands to cabinet-level departments, each organization’s history reveals important themes and lessons for leaders to consider in forming a new organization.

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    Added April 21, 2015

    Evolving Army Needs for Space-Based Support

    Authored by Jeffery L. Caton.
    View the Executive Summary

    During the past half-century, Army space operations have evolved from a realm exclusive to scientists and engineers, to highly classified activities largely unknown to the general population, to the unveiling of space-based communication, imagery, surveillance, and environment capabilities that have become a foundation for all modern warfare. Is the Army properly postured to meet current and future space-based support needs to conduct unified land operations?

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    Added April 13, 2015

    Another Brick in the Wall: The Israeli Experience in Missile Defense

    Authored by Dr. Jean-Loup Samaan.
    View the Executive Summary

    The Israeli experience in missile defense reveals crucial lessons on the military adaptation to both new threats and new remedies that have direct implications for the United States and its allies.

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    Added April 09, 2015

    A Russian View on Landpower

    Authored by Major General Aleksandr V. Rogovoy, Keir Giles.
    View the Executive Summary

    In a time of rapid change for the U.S. Army, it is essential to retain awareness of how potential adversaries are also developing their concepts of Landpower. This Letort Paper lays out an authoritative Russian view on the importance of substantial conventional land forces—a view which U.S. force planners should study closely.

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    Added April 08, 2015

    Space-Based Solar Power: A Technical, Economic, and Operational Assessment

    Authored by Jeffery L. Caton.
    View the Executive Summary

    With growing international awareness of energy security challenges, the promise of space-based solar power for clean and unlimited energy for all humankind is certainly appealing. While significant progress continues in the enabling technologies of such systems, is there compelling evidence that space-based solar power systems will provide the best energy solution? How does the Army’s current approach to incorporating a diverse portfolio of renewable energy sources in distributed locations compare to the potential of enterprise ventures that beam energy from solar collectors in space?

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    Added April 03, 2015

    Thucydides Was Right: Defining the Future Threat

    Authored by Dr. Colin S. Gray.
    View the Executive Summary

    To define future threat is, in a sense, an impossible task, yet it is one that must be done. The only sources of empirical evidence accessible are the past and the present; one cannot obtain understanding about the future from the future.

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    Added April 01, 2015

    Confidence Building in Cyberspace: A Comparison of Territorial and Weapons-Based Regimes

    Authored by Dr. Mary Manjikian.
    View the Executive Summary

    Confidence-building measures among nations can establish trust, prevent misunderstandings, and establish stable conditions in the international system. In considering how to establish confidence-building measures in cyberspace, analysts can learn from past examples—including the establishment of weapons-based confidence-building measures in the areas of biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons, as well as in the Indo-Pakistan Conflict.

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    Added February 11, 2015

    Senior Conference 50, The Army We Need: The Role of Landpower in an Uncertain Strategic Environment

    Edited by Major Charlie D Lewis, Dr. Rachel M Sondheimer, Colonel Jeffrey D Peterson.
    View the Executive Summary

    Senior Conference 2014, the 50th iteration of the United States Military Academy (USMA) Senior Conference, explored emerging trends and their implications for the Army’s strategic contribution to national security.

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    Added February 03, 2015

    New Realities: Energy Security in the 2010s and Implications for the U.S. Military

    Edited by Dr. John R. Deni.
    View the Executive Summary

    How are the profound, even revolutionary changes in today’s global energy markets affecting U.S. national security and the U.S. military? Experts from academia, think tanks, the Pentagon, and the private sector address these and related questions in this timely, important edited volume.

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    Added January 23, 2015

    Army Support of Military Cyberspace Operations: Joint Contexts and Global Escalation Implications

    Authored by Jeffery L. Caton.
    View the Executive Summary

    Military cyberspace operations have been ongoing since before the advent of the Internet and their influence on traditional military operations continues to increase. What are the significant changes in mission and structure of Department of Defense offensive and defensive cyberspace activities over the past decade? How do joint and Army cyberspace military operations fit into the complex and dynamic sphere of daily network defense as well as international deterrence and escalation?

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    Added December 15, 2014

    Operationalizing Counter Threat Finance Strategies

    Authored by Dr. Shima D. Keene.
    View the Executive Summary

    Counter Threat Finance strategies have the potential to be a multifaceted weapon both for the purpose of gathering intelligence and for direct action. This Paper highlights ways in which Counter Threat Finance strategies can be applied not only to effectively disrupt adversary activity, but also to stabilize local economies for the purpose of capturing hearts and minds, as well as to serve in advance as indicators and warnings of impending instability.

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    Added December 12, 2014

    Government Contracting Should be a Core Competence for U.S. Military Personnel

    Authored by Professor Katherine E. White.
    View the Executive Summary

    The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan mark an era of unprecedented outsourcing in contingency operations—in some cases leading to significant waste, fraud, and abuse. The author addresses the steps the U.S. military should take to make government contracting a core competency for both its civilian and military personnel.

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    Added October 16, 2014

    Distinguishing Acts of War in Cyberspace: Assessment Criteria, Policy Considerations, and Response Implications

    Authored by Jeffery L. Caton.
    View the Executive Summary

    Currently, there is no internationally accepted definition of when hostile actions in cyberspace are recognized as attacks, let alone acts of war. Although many of the challenges associated with this conundrum are common with those of the traditional domains (land, sea, and air), how should senior policymakers and decisionmakers address the unique vexations related to the complex and dynamic character of conflict in the cyberspace domain?

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    Added July 25, 2014

    Visual Propaganda and Extremism in the Online Environment

    Authored by Dr. Carol K. Winkler, Dr. Cori E. Dauber.
    View the Executive Summary

    Visual images have been a central component of propaganda for as long as propaganda has been produced. Terrorist groups, with very little initial investment, are making videos that are coming so close to the quality of BBC or CNN broadcasts that the difference is meaningless, and with access to the web, they have instantaneous access to a global audience.

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    Added June 19, 2014

    Operational Reservations: Considerations for a Total Army Force

    Authored by COL John D. Ellis, COL (Ret.) Laura McKnight Mackenzie.
    View the Executive Summary

    Despite fighting shoulder-to-shoulder this past decade, the U.S. Army is comprised of essentially “three Armies”—the active component, the Army Reserve, and the National Guard. While an intriguing start to integrate the three components, the Army Total Force Policy is not a panacea for reform. Real and meaningful work still needs to be done to bring the three into effective alignment and in a way to foster cooperation and mutual respect.

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    Added June 11, 2014

    Cyberterrorism after STUXNET

    Authored by Dr. Thomas M. Chen.
    View the Executive Summary

    This monograph examines the threat of cyberterrorism before and after STUXNET by addressing questions of motive, means, and opportunity. STUXNET has not changed the near-term likelihood of cyberterrorism, which remains low, but has implications for the cost-benefit weights of future attacks.

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    Added March 19, 2014

    Defense Planning for National Security: Navigation Aids for the Mystery Tour

    Authored by Dr. Colin S. Gray.
    View the Executive Summary

    What do we believe we know about the future with sufficient reliability for it to serve as a basis for defense planning? Science and social science are both utterly disarmed by the complete absence of data about the future, from the future.

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    Added March 11, 2014

    Legality in Cyberspace: An Adversary View

    Authored by Keir Giles, Dr. Andrew Monaghan.
    View the Executive Summary

    The United States and its allies are in general agreement on the legal status of conflict in cyberspace. But other key cyber actors have radically different ideas on key concepts of cyber warfare, including when a state of war exists. This paper explores the Russian approach to legal constraints governing actions in cyberspace, in order to assist in formulating an effective response to Russian cyber initiatives.

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    Added March 05, 2014

    The Chinese People's Liberation Army and Information Warfare

    Authored by Dr. Larry M. Wortzel.
    View the Executive Summary

    The Chinese government plans to establish a new air defense intercept zone which will include the Diaoyu or Senkaku Islands, sovereignty over which is disputed by Japan, China, and Taiwan. Due to complaints of cyber penetrations attributed to the Chinese People’s Liberation Army, U.S. Departments of Justice, Homeland Security, and State are devising new means to protect intellectual property and secrets from the PLA’s computer network operations.

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    Added February 14, 2014

    Senior Officer Talent Management: Fostering Institutional Adaptability

    Authored by Lieutenant Colonel (Ret) Michael J. Colarusso, Lieutenant Colonel David S. Lyle.
    View the Executive Summary

    Former Secretary of Defense Robert Gates characterized the "greatest challenges facing the Army" as the "institutional and bureaucratic constipation" of its officer management systems. In this book, Mike Colarusso and Dave Lyle examine the Army's industrial-era personnel practices and prescribe a senior officer talent management approach that they believe is better suited to the demands of tomorrow.

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    Added January 08, 2014

    New Realities: Energy Security in the 2010s and Implications for the U.S. Military - Executive Summaries

    Edited by Dr. John R. Deni.
    The rapidly changing global energy supply situation, coupled with a host of social, political, and economic challenges facing consumer states, has significant implications for the United States generally and for the U.S. military specifically. The U.S. Army War College gathered experts from the policymaking community, academia, think tanks, the private sector, and the military services at the Reserve Officers Association in Washington, DC on 19-20 November 2013 to address first the major ‘new realities’ both geographically and technologically and then the specific military implications. This compendium of executive summaries is based on the presentations delivered at that conference, which was funded through the generous support of the U.S. Army War College Foundation.

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    Added December 03, 2013

    U.S. Governmental Information Operations and Strategic Communications: A Discredited Tool or User Failure? Implications for Future Conflict

    Authored by Dr. Steve Tatham.
    View the Executive Summary

    Are U.S. information operations and strategic communications fit for purpose? This issue is debated herein, and the author concludes that, if the United States is to compete with emerging powers such as China and Russia, it needs to significantly modernize and update information operations and strategic communications. But, despite what critics and even Congress may say, these important programs must not be cut.

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    Added September 26, 2013

    The Effectiveness of Drone Strikes in Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorism Campaigns

    Authored by Dr. James Igoe Walsh.
    View the Executive Summary

    Drones have become an important part of the U.S. counterinsurgency and counterterrorism arsenal. But the available evidence shows that they are not always effective, and their use can have unpredictable consequences.

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    Added September 23, 2013

    An Assessment of the DoD Strategy for Operating in Cyberspace

    Authored by Dr. Thomas M. Chen.
    View the Executive Summary

    This monograph critically examines the Department of Defense Strategy for Operating in Cyberspace, which was published in July 2011. What are the messages conveyed, and is the Strategy adequate to maintain U.S. superiority in the face of existing and future cyber threats?

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    Added August 27, 2013

    The Security Concerns of the Baltic States as NATO Allies

    Authored by Dr. James S. Corum.
    View the Executive Summary

    America’s small NATO allies have unique views concerning international threats. This monograph explores the security environment of the three Baltic States and how the Baltic policymakers see the future of their relationship with NATO and the United States in an uncertain world.

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    Added August 21, 2013

    2013-14 Key Strategic Issues List

    Edited by Professor John F. Troxell.
    For several years, the Strategic Studies Institute has annually published the Key Strategic Issues List (KSIL). The overall purpose of this document is to make students and other researchers aware of strategic topics that are of special interest to the U.S. Army. Part I of KSIL is entitled "Army Priorities for Strategic Analysis" (APSA) and is a list of high-priority topics submitted by Headquarters, Department of the Army. Part II is entitled "Command Sponsored Topics" and represents the high-priority command-specific topics submitted by MACOMs and ASCCs. This KSIL provides military and civilian researchers worldwide a listing of the Army's most critical national security issues.

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    Added August 13, 2013

    Development of the Baltic Armed Forces in Light of Multinational Deployments

    Authored by Dr. James S. Corum.
    View the Executive Summary

    Small NATO allies have become important players in multinational operations. This monograph helps U.S. policymakers and military leaders understand the problems that small allies face when they participate in U.S.-led operations.

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    Added May 03, 2013

    Cyber Infrastructure Protection: Vol. II

    Edited by Dr. Tarek N. Saadawi, COL Louis H. Jordan, Jr, Dr. Vincent Boudreau.
    View the Executive Summary

    This book is a follow-on to our earlier book published in 2011 and represents a detailed look at various aspects of cyber security. The chapters herein provide an integrated framework and a comprehensive view of the various forms of cyber infrastructure protection.

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    Added April 26, 2013

    Sharing Power? Prospects for a U.S. Concert-Balance Strategy

    Authored by Dr. Patrick Porter.
    View the Executive Summary

    Sharing Power examines alternative U.S. grand strategies. It argues that, while retrenchment is prudent, new strategies will also have to cope with dilemmas that can be mitigated but cannot be avoided.

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    Added April 04, 2013

    Making Strategic Sense of Cyber Power: Why the Sky Is Not Falling

    Authored by Dr. Colin S. Gray.
    View the Executive Summary

    Cyber is now recognized as an operational domain, but the theory that should explain it strategically is very largely missing. As the military establishment accepted the revolution in military affairs as the big organizing idea of the 1990s, then moved on to transformation in the early-2000s, so the third really big idea of the post-Cold War Era began to secure traction—cyber. However, it is one thing to know how to digitize; it is quite another to understand what digitization means strategically. With respect to cyber power, Dr. Colin Gray poses and seeks to answer the most basic of the strategist’s questions, “So what?”

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    Added November 14, 2012

    Jihadist Cells and "IED" Capabilities in Europe: Assessing the Present and Future Threat to the West

    Authored by Dr. Jeffrey M. Bale.
    The increasing diffusion and application of expertise acquired by jihadists in fabricating “improvised explosive devices” and the extent to which local jihadist cells in the West may or may not be connected to veteran terrorist groups and networks in other countries and regions are vital concerns for Western military forces and security and intelligence agencies as they relate to these veteran terrorist groups and networks in other countries and regions of the world.

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    Added November 02, 2012

    Beyond the Battlefield: Institutional Army Transformation Following Victory in Iraq

    Authored by Lieutenant Colonel G. Scott Taylor.
    Learning lessons from past conflicts is essential to avoid repeating the same mistakes in future wars. Even more important, it is critical to apply those lessons to institutional change to inculcate the lessons of the past conflict–this Paper highlights some of the author’s observations on changes that should be integrated into the institutional Army to ensure that the hard-earned lessons of counterinsurgency fighting and stability operations achieved in the sands of Iraq and hills of Afghanistan are not lost over the years ahead as we withdraw from Iraq and Afghanistan.

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    Added October 12, 2012

    A "Hollow Army" Reappraised: President Carter, Defense Budgets, and the Politics of Military Readiness

    Authored by Professor Frank L. Jones.
    For more than 30 years, the term “hollow army” has represented President Carter’s alleged willingness to allow American military capability to deteriorate in the face of growing Soviet capability. The true story is more complicated than the metaphor suggests.

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    Added October 09, 2012

    The Future of American Landpower: Does Forward Presence Still Matter? The Case of the Army in Europe

    Authored by Dr. John R. Deni.
    View the Executive Summary

    The January 2012 announcement that the United States would reduce the number of Brigade Combat Teams in Europe captured media, popular, and scholarly attention, prompting many to ask: Is the United States turning its back on Europe as it pivots to Asia? Do the Europeans have the wherewithal to defend themselves? Are forward-based U.S. land forces necessary at all? Given the necessity of capable, interoperable coalition partners for the future security threats Washington most expects to encounter, the role of America’s forward military presence in Europe remains as vital as it was at the dawn of the Cold War, but for different reasons. Dr. Deni’s monograph forms a critical datapoint in the ongoing dialogue regarding the future of American Landpower.

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    Added August 16, 2012

    Transnational Organized Crime, Terrorism, and Criminalized States in Latin America: An Emerging Tier-One National Security Priority

    Authored by Douglas Farah.
    The emergence of new hybrid (state and nonstate) transnational criminal/terrorist franchises in Latin America operating under broad state protection now pose a tier-one security threat for the United States. Similar hybrid franchise models are developing in other parts of the world, making understanding the new dynamics an important factor in a broader national security context.

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    Added August 08, 2012

    Culture, Identity, and Information Technology in the 21st Century: Implications for U.S. National Security

    Authored by Dr. Pauline Kusiak.
    The author describes strategic trends in cultural change and identity formation in the 21st century and suggests that the beliefs and values of foreign societies may increasingly, and more directly, impact our own national security in a future dominated by information technology.

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    Added August 01, 2012

    2012-13 Key Strategic Issues List

    Edited by Dr. Antulio J. Echevarria, II.
    The purpose of the Key Strategic Issues List is to provide military and civilian researchers a ready reference for issues of special interest to the Department of the Army and the Department of Defense.

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    Added December 23, 2011

    Organizational Change in the Russian Airborne Forces: The Lessons of the Georgian Conflict

    Authored by Dr. Rod Thornton.
    Russia’s best troops are to be found in the Airborne Forces. These were the only Russian troops to emerge with their reputation intact after the conflict with Georgia in 2008. They can represent a formidable foe. This monograph examines the current state of the Airborne Forces and why they might be seen as "formidable."

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    Added December 16, 2011

    Real Leadership and the U.S. Army: Overcoming a Failure of Imagination to Conduct Adaptive Work

    Authored by Colonel John B. Richardson, IV.
    This is a case study of a cavalry squadron struggling with operational adaptability. Through this struggle, the study provides a means for analyzing the complexity of organizational leadership in the contemporary security environment. The case study provides an example where hard fought lessons learned resulted in a more holistic approach to leadership, because the leader transcended that of simply being an authority figure, and instead, become a real leader who provided a safe and creative learning environment where the organization was able to tackle and solve complex problems.

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    Added October 31, 2011

    Arms Control and Proliferation Challenges to the Reset Policy

    Authored by Dr. Stephen J. Blank.
    What are the prospects for further progress in the reset policy with Russia regarding arms control and nuclear proliferation by North Korea and Iran? This monograph attempts to postulate where we are, and possibly where we should be going, or will be going, with respect to these issues.

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    Added September 22, 2011

    Puncturing the Counterinsurgency Myth: Britain and Irregular Warfare in the Past, Present, and Future

    Authored by Dr. Andrew Mumford.
    Far from being the counterinsurgency exemplars that history has benevolently cast them, this monograph posits 10 myths of British counterinsurgency that debunk key elements of British performance in irregular warfare from Malaya to Iraq.

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    Added July 08, 2011

    The New Aztecs: Ritual and Restraint in Contemporary Western Military Operations

    Authored by Dr. Zhivan Alach.
    The Western way of war has come full circle. After centuries, indeed millennia, of evolution toward increased totality and brutality, it has turned back once again to the ritualistic and restrained methods of primitive warfare.

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    Added June 15, 2011

    Military Modernization and the Russian Ground Forces

    Authored by Dr. Rod Thornton.
    Russia’s political leaders are currently pushing a state- and society-wide process of modernization. How will the deeply conservative Russian military accept and implement those proposed changes?

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    Added May 09, 2011

    Cyber Infrastructure Protection

    Edited by Dr. Tarek N. Saadawi, COL Louis H. Jordan, Jr.
    This book answers several essential questions: What is cyberpower; how do we deal with emerging threats in cyberspace; what are the lessons that have already been learned; and where are the current cyberspace vulnerabilities?

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    Added April 25, 2011

    Improvised Explosive Devices in Iraq, 2003-09: A Case of Operational Surprise and Institutional Response

    Authored by Brigadier Andrew Smith.
    Institutional defense establishments guide the development of national military capabilities. Recent experience suggests that the orthodox approaches that they have evolved to perform this function in nominal peacetime are insufficiently responsive for contemporary threats and challenges.

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    Added February 25, 2011

    Reforming Military Command Arrangements: The Case of the Rapid Deployment Joint Task Force

    Authored by Henrik Bliddal.
    Our national security system turns our overall capabilities into active assets, protects us against the threats of an anarchic international system, and makes it possible to exploit its opportunities. Today, however, the system is arguably in dire need of reform.

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    Added December 21, 2010

    A Risk-Based Approach to Strategic Balance

    Authored by Colonel John A. Mauk.
    This paper explores a risk-based approach to a strategically balanced force that assesses alternative postures and the viability of competing force concepts in mitigating national risk in a resource-constrained environment. This assessment also examines alternate definitions of balance and the continued relevance of U.S. conventional capabilities and nuclear deterrence.

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    Added August 27, 2010

    David Galula: His Life and Intellectual Context

    Authored by Ms. Ann Marlowe.
    David Galula’s ideas are reflected in U.S. Army Field Manual 3-24, Counterinsurgency, and in nearly every speech that American commanders in Afghanistan and Iraq give, but until now, almost no biographical information was available about him. Arguably the greatest writer on counterinsurgency, Galula led a fascinating, although all too brief, life that gave him a bird’s eye view of most of the great conflicts of the second half of the 20th century.

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    Added August 24, 2010

    U.S. Military Forces and Police Assistance in Stability Operations: The Least-Worst Option to Fill the U.S. Capacity Gap

    Authored by Colonel (Ret.) Dennis E Keller.
    Stability operations in Iraq and Afghanistan continue to be challenged by the lack of effective local police forces to secure the civilian population from insurgent infiltration and criminal violence. Given U.S. government legal and organizational shortfalls to train and advise foreign police forces, coupled with an operational environment characterized by local police corruption and abusiveness, this monograph proposes a way ahead for effective community based policing despite these adverse circumstances.

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    Added August 13, 2010

    Defense Energy Resilience: Lessons from Ecology

    Authored by Dr. Scott Thomas, Mr. David Kerner.
    National Security relies heavily on the ready availability of energy resources in the types, quantities, and locations the military demands. While U.S. energy needs are currently met, the shrinking gap between global supply and demand draws the world closer to a tipping point at which human behavior is less predictable, competition overwhelms social and geopolitical normalizing forces, and conflict becomes more likely and more pronounced. Given concerns about future resource availability, DoD would be well served by devising and implementing a sustainable, resilient energy strategy that addresses current projections and adapts to evolving conditions.

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