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Nation Building Studies

Added November 20, 2013
Type: Monograph
What Is Next for Mali? The Roots of Conflict and Challenges to Stability. Authored by Dr. Dona J. Stewart.
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In 2012, Mali simultaneously faced a military coup, a Tuareg nationalist movement, al-Qaeda in the Islamic Magreb control in the north, and a drought-fueled humanitarian emergency. Military intervention restored security; addressing the underlying factors of the crisis is key to achieving long-term stability.
Added November 14, 2013
Type: Monograph
State Collapse, Insurgency, and Counterinsurgency: Lessons from Somalia. Authored by Dr. J. Peter Pham.
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After years as the world’s prime example of a failed state—one that gave rise to catastrophic humanitarian crises, a wave of maritime piracy, and Islamist militancy, including an al-Qaeda-linked insurgency that came close to toppling the internationally-recognized government—Somalia appears to be turning the corner. In this provocative monograph, Dr. Pham argues that there are indeed lessons to be learned from the insurgency and counterinsurgency in Somalia, but they are not the ones usually advanced by diplomats and soldiers.
Added November 12, 2013
Type: Monograph
Building Better Armies: An Insider’s Account of Liberia. Authored by Dr. Sean McFate.
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This monograph explains, step-by-step, how to demobilize militias and raise armies in conflict-affected states by someone who has done so successfully.
Added October 16, 2013
Type: Book
Conflict Management and Peacebuilding: Pillars of a New American Grand Strategy. Edited by Dr. Volker C. Franke, Dr. Robert H. Dorff.
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The authors examine the utility of the U.S. Government’s whole-of-government (WoG) approach for responding to the challenging security demands of operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. They specifically discuss the strategic objectives of interagency cooperation particularly in the areas of peacebuilding and conflict management.
Added June 14, 2013
Type: Monograph
Nigerian Unity: In the Balance. Authored by Gerald McLoughlin, Lieutenant Colonel Clarence J. Bouchat (USAF, Ret.).
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The existence of Nigeria as a unified state is in jeopardy. To counter this, the United States should better support Nigeria through some practical steps and thereby significantly advance both countries’ interests.
Added June 04, 2013
Type: Letort Papers
Avoiding the Slippery Slope: Conducting Effective Interventions. Authored by Dr. Thomas R. Mockaitis.
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Operation ODYSSEY DAWN was the most recent in a long list of foreign interventions by the U.S. military. Difficult as such operations may be, the need for them remains a constant in international security. The author considers how to mount such interventions effectively without getting bogged down in protracted occupations that are costly in blood in and treasure.
Added April 01, 2013
Type: Letort Papers
From Chaos to Cohesion: A Regional Approach to Security, Stability, and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Authored by Diane E. Chido.
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African Regional Economic Communities (RECs) are increasingly proving their ability and willingness to unite to halt and prevent conflict and to further regional economic and political objectives. USAFRICOM is uniquely positioned to strengthen REC capacity as a first step in a longer-term Pan-African integration process for enhanced continental stability and security.
Added March 20, 2013
Type: Monograph
Governance, Identity, and Counterinsurgency: Evidence from Ramadi and Tal Afar. Authored by Dr. Michael Fitzsimmons.
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Western thinking on counterinsurgency seems to be that success in countering insurgencies depends on a perception of legitimacy among local populations. However, it may be more correct to consider the identity of who governs, rather than on how whoever governs governs.
Added October 31, 2012
Type: Monograph
State-Building Challenges in a Post-Revolution Libya. Authored by Dr. Mohammed El-Katiri.
Following the overthrow of Muammar Qadhafi, Libya’s National Transitional Council inherited a difficult and volatile domestic situation. The new leadership faces serious challenges in all areas of statehood. Libya’s immediate future is of critical importance, consequently, it is especially important for Libya's interim government to build the political institutions for a functioning modern democratic state.
Added July 03, 2012
Type: Student (Carlisle) Papers
End Game Strategies: Winning the Peace. Authored by Lieutenant Colonel William L. Peace, Sr.
What lessons can be learned from the occupation of Germany after World War II and from Iraq after Operation IRAQI FREEDOM? This Carlisle Paper analyzes both the similarities and differences between the occupations of both countries and suggests how lessons learned from both can be applied to the future.
Added May 10, 2012
Type: Book
Disjointed Ways, Disunified Means: Learning from America's Struggle to Build an Afghan Nation. Authored by Colonel Lewis G. Irwin.
Remarkably ambitious in its audacity and scope, NATO’s irregular warfare and nation-building mission in Afghanistan has struggled to meet its nonmilitary objectives by most tangible measures. This book explores shortfalls in the U.S. Government’s strategic planning processes and the mechanisms for interagency coordination of effort that have contributed to this situation, as well as reforms needed to meet emerging 21st century national security challenges.
Added May 01, 2012
Type: Monograph
Lessons of the Iraqi De-Ba'athification Program for Iraq's Future and the Arab Revolutions. Authored by Dr. W. Andrew Terrill.
This monograph considers both the future of Iraq and the differences and similarities between events in Iraq and the Arab Spring states. Serious and expanding mistakes by new governments are possible in the aftermath of the Arab Spring revolutions, and any lessons that can be gleaned from earlier conflicts will be of considerable value to those nations. Moreover, U.S. Army officers and senior noncommissioned officers (NCOs) may often have unique opportunities and unique credibility to offer advice on the lessons of Iraq to their counterparts in some of the Arab Spring nations.
Added April 17, 2012
Type: Book
Conflict Management and "Whole of Government": Useful Tools for U.S. National Security Strategy? Edited by Dr. Volker C. Franke, Dr. Robert H. Dorff.
Intended to facilitate dialogue between academic experts, military leaders, policymakers, and civilian practitioners, this edited volume provides a state of the art analysis of current whole of government (WoG) approaches and their effectiveness for coordinating stabilization and peacebuilding efforts. It explores the question: Can “smart power”—using the right tool for each operational context—successfully shift the burden of stability operations to civilian actors and enable the timely scaling-down of military deployments?
Added July 15, 2011
Type: Student (Carlisle) Papers
The Changing Face of Afghanistan, 2001-08. Authored by Colonel Deborah Hanagan.
This paper reviews the broad dimensions of the George W. Bush administration policy and strategy regarding Afghanistan and the fact that it was multilateral, encompassing extensive political, economic, and military efforts, and multinational during the entire period of the administration. It provides broad documentation of the concrete progress made in the country between 2001 and 2008 and addresses the ongoing challenges.
Added June 08, 2011
Type: PKSOI Papers
Defining Command, Leadership, and Management Success Factors within Stability Operations. Authored by Major Dave Fielder.
Stabilization operations have been present across the globe for centuries in many forms. But how have the command, leadership, and management of these operations manifested themselves, and what are the success attributes within this field of study?
Added May 19, 2011
Type: Monograph
Rebuilding Armed Forces: Learning from Iraq and Lebanon. Authored by Dr. Florence Gaub.
Learning from the armed forces of Iraq and Lebanon might not seem the first instinct when it comes to improving post-conflict reconstruction efforts. Yet, the two cases offer useful insight into these processes, what to avoid and what to emphasize.
Added March 25, 2011
Type: Colloquium Brief
Security and Governance: Foundations for International Stability. Authored by Dru Lauzon, Andrew Vine.
This conference was designed to outline strategies for coping with the threat posed to international stability by fragile, failing, or failed states. Presentations outlined various strategies for identifying and ameliorating the security challenges that result from state failure in contemporary international environments.
Added March 01, 2011
Type: Monograph
Civilian Skills for African Military Officers to Resolve the Infrastructure, Economic Development, and Stability Crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa. Authored by Diane E. Chido.
Military retirees in many African countries face uncertain futures. The author suggests that USAFRICOM should include robust engineering programs as a part of its training approach for the region, thereby providing valuable opportunities for retiring service members, improving civil-military relationships, and enhancing economic development and stability.
Added December 15, 2010
Type: PKSOI Papers
Lessons Learned from U.S. Government Law Enforcement in International Operations. Authored by Ms. Dilshika Jayamaha, Scott Brady, Ben Fitzgerald, Jason Fritz.
The authors investigate how the full range of law enforcement capabilities available to the U.S. Government has been applied in pursuit of U.S. strategic objectives in Panama, Colombia, and Kosovo. This analysis identifies a number of lessons to be learned about the use of such capabilities (in a holistic sense) in current and future international operations.
Added October 04, 2010
Type: Monograph
Harnessing Post-Conflict "Transitions": A Conceptual Primer. Authored by Mr. Nicholas J. Armstrong, Ms. Jacqueline Chura-Beaver.
A widely accepted and understood definition of "transition" is necessary to enable U.S. military, interagency, and multinational planners to foster greater collaboration and unity of effort as operations move toward a “clear, hold, build, transition” strategy.
Added August 27, 2010
Type: Book
David Galula: His Life and Intellectual Context. Authored by Ms. Ann Marlowe.
David Galula’s ideas are reflected in U.S. Army Field Manual 3-24, Counterinsurgency, and in nearly every speech that American commanders in Afghanistan and Iraq give, but until now, almost no biographical information was available about him. Arguably the greatest writer on counterinsurgency, Galula led a fascinating, although all too brief, life that gave him a bird’s eye view of most of the great conflicts of the second half of the 20th century.
Added August 24, 2010
Type: PKSOI Papers
U.S. Military Forces and Police Assistance in Stability Operations: The Least-Worst Option to Fill the U.S. Capacity Gap. Authored by Colonel (Ret.) Dennis E Keller.
Stability operations in Iraq and Afghanistan continue to be challenged by the lack of effective local police forces to secure the civilian population from insurgent infiltration and criminal violence. Given U.S. government legal and organizational shortfalls to train and advise foreign police forces, coupled with an operational environment characterized by local police corruption and abusiveness, this monograph proposes a way ahead for effective community based policing despite these adverse circumstances.
Added June 17, 2010
Type: Letort Papers
Endgame for the West in Afghanistan? Explaining the Decline in Support for the War in Afghanistan in the United States, Great Britain, Canada, Australia, France and Germany. Authored by Charles A. Miller.
Analyses of the War in Afghanistan frequently mention the declining or shaky domestic support for the conflict in the United States and among several U.S. allies. This paper dates the beginning of this decline back to the resurgence of the Taliban in 2005-06 and suggests that the deteriorating course of the war on the ground in Afghanistan itself along with mounting casualties is the key reason behind this drop in domestic support for the war.
Added June 01, 2010
Type: Book
Rethinking Leadership and "Whole of Government" National Security Reform: Problems, Progress, and Prospects. Edited by Dr. Joseph R. Cerami, Dr. Jeffrey A. Engel.
On June 24, 2009, in Washington, DC, the Bush School of Government and Public Service and Scowcroft Institute of International Affairs at Texas A&M University, and the Strategic Studies Institute of the U.S. Army War College conducted a conference on Leadership and Government Reform. Two panels discussed "Leader Development in Schools of Public Affairs" and "Leadership, National Security and 'Whole of Government' Reforms." The authors in this volume are from universities and policy institutes focused on international affairs, history, foreign policy, intelligence, and national and homeland security.
Added May 11, 2010
Type: Monograph
Crime, Violence, and the Crisis in Guatemala: A Case Study in the Erosion of the State. Authored by Dr. Hal Brands.
In this monograph, the author argues that rampant crime and violence have led to a full-blown crisis of the democratic state in Guatemala. He discusses the various criminal groups active in that country, and outlines a strategy for improving public order, strengthening government institutions, and combating the root causes that inform criminal activity.
Added April 23, 2010
Type: Letort Papers
Shades of CORDS in the Kush: The False Hope of "Unity of Effort" in American Counterinsurgency. Authored by Mr. Henry Nuzum.
Counterinsurgency (COIN) requires an integrated military, political, and economic program best developed by teams that field both civilians and soldiers. This Paper describes the benefits that unity of command at every level would bring to the American war in Afghanistan.
Added April 19, 2010
Type: Book
Short of General War: Perspectives on the Use of Military Power in the 21st Century. Edited by Dr. Harry R Yarger.
In this anthology, students in the U.S. Army War College Class of 2008 critically examine the emerging 21st century security environment and offer diverse and innovative thoughts on how military power should be applied in situations short of general war.
Added April 16, 2010
Type: Monograph
The Construction of Liberal Democracy: The Role of Civil-Military Institutions in State and Nation-Building in West Germany and South Africa. Authored by Dr. Jack J. Porter.
West Germany’s and South Africa’s experiences remind U.S. policymakers of the tremendous obstacles and challenges that confront states as they attempt to install liberal, democratic political institutions.
Added April 14, 2010
Type: PKSOI Papers
The State-Owned Enterprise as a Vehicle for Stability. Authored by Dr. Neil Efird.
State-owned enterprises affect stability in conflict-prone environments, and decisive control of them creates positive or negative conditions. However, it is a challenge to know how and when to use these enterprises, and a good set of metrics is necessary to measure their effectiveness.
Added April 08, 2010
Type: Monograph
Thinking about Nuclear Power in Post-Saddam Iraq. Authored by Dr. Norman Cigar.
Iraqis are debating the desirability of atomic power for their country. U.S. and international policymakers will have to consider Iraqi views as they shape policy to manage the process of an orderly, safe, and peaceful nuclear reintegration of Iraq in the civilian sector while guaranteeing safeguards against both accidents and any future diversion of a nuclear program for military purposes or terrorist exploitation.
Added March 26, 2010
Type: Student (Carlisle) Papers
Synchronizing U.S. Government Efforts toward Collaborative Health Care Policymaking in Iraq. Authored by Lieutenant Colonel Thomas S. Bundt.
A primary catalyst in achieving our strategic ends in Iraq is through the formulation of a consolidated and cooperative strategic health care policy to enable the successful operation of the Iraqi health care system. An often-cited criticism of U.S. policy, however, is that after the end of major hostilities and transition into stabilization operations, we fall short in post-conflict planning and execution. This analysis highlights some of these operational deficiencies, and it provides recommendations for achieving a more coordinated, functional, and thereby synchronous strategic health care policy. These proposals will enable the U.S. Government (USG) to address health policy operations in stabilization and transitional phase contexts currently and in the future.
Added January 22, 2010
Type: Letort Papers
Security and Stability in Africa: A Development Approach. Authored by Lieutenant Colonel Clarence J. Bouchat (USAF, Ret.).
The security and stability of Africa has recently become an important national issue. However, to be effective this growing interest must be rooted in the desire to overcome centuries of ignorance and misunderstanding about the conditions and people of Africa.
Added November 27, 2009
Type: PKSOI Papers
Democratic Governance and the Rule of Law: Lessons from Colombia. Authored by Dr. Gabriel Marcella.
Colombia has experienced conflict for decades and, as the author observed, was a “paradigm for a failing state” in that it was replete with terrorism, kidnapping, murder, corruption, and general lawlessness. But today it is much safer through the imposition of the "Rule of Law."
Added November 03, 2009
Type: Monograph
A Case Study in Security Sector Reform: Learning from Security Sector Reform/Building in Afghanistan (October 2002-September 2003). Authored by Captain Jason C. Howk.
Afghanistan was America’s first attempt at conducting formalized Security Sector Reform. This case study offers readers an opportunity to learn whom the United States saw as key actors in the process, what institutions were slated for reform, and how well the United States and its partners met the typical challenges of SSR.
Added October 06, 2009
Type: Monograph
Guide to Rebuilding Public Sector Services in Stability Operations: A Role for the Military. Authored by Derick W. Brinkerhoff, Ronald W. Johnson, Richard Hill. Edited by Professor Susan Merrill.
The authors provide a set of principles and operational guidelines for peacekeepers to help a country restore public infrastructure and services. The extent to which public sector reconstruction takes place is a function of the mission, the level of resources, expertise of the troops, and the host country context. This guide provides courses of action to both planners and practitioners in executing these operations and supplements existing and emerging documents.
Added September 25, 2009
Type: Letort Papers
A Comprehensive Approach to Improving U.S. Security Force Assistance Efforts. Authored by Lieutenant Colonel Theresa Baginski, Colonel Brian J. Clark, Lieutenant Colonel Francis Donovan, Ms. Karma Job, Lieutenant Colonel John S. Kolasheski, Colonel Richard A. Lacquement, Jr., Brigadier Simon "Don" Roach, Colonel Sean P. Swindell, Colonel Curt A. Van De Walle, Colonel Michael J. McMahon.
Security Force Assistance may be a new term but the activities are familiar and are related to how the Department of Defense trains, advises, and assists foreign partners' security establishments to accomplish common objectives. Recommendations to improve U.S. performance are provided.
Added September 24, 2009
Type: Letort Papers
Iraq: Strategic Reconciliation, Targeting, and Key Leader Engagement. Authored by Captain Jeanne F. Hull.
Military commanders and diplomats in Iraq and Afghanistan have been meeting with important local officials since the inception of those conflicts. These engagements have aided commanders and diplomats alike in furthering their objectives by establishing productive relationships with those who know and understand Iraq’s complex human terrain best—the Iraqis. However, these engagements frequently take place on ad-hoc bases and are rarely incorporated into other counterinsurgency operations and strategies. In some cases, unit commanders fail to see the utility of using these engagements at all--an oversight that contributes to deteriorating security situations and loss of popular support.
Added September 30, 2008
Type: Colloquium Report
Stability Operations and State Building: Continuities and Contingencies. Edited by Colonel Greg Kaufmann, U.S.A., Ret..
The current age of state building may be traced back at least to U.S. involvement in the various Balkan conflicts. But with the advent of the Global War on Terror and the subsequent interventions in Afghanistan and Iraq, the U.S. military, especially the Army and the Marines Corps, has been faced with an unprecedented challenge to reestablish entire countries and rebuild their institutions.
Added October 12, 2007
Type: Student (Carlisle) Papers
Turning on the DIME: Diplomacy's Role in National Security. Authored by Mr. Anton K. Smith.
Understanding between the Departments of State and Defense is critical to ensuring national security. Nonetheless, these two key internationally-oriented agencies take different paths to arrive at the same goals--paths that must ultimately cross in order to heal the wounds of conflict.
Added August 21, 2007
Type: Monograph
Negotiation in the New Strategic Environment: Lessons from Iraq. Authored by Mr. David M Tressler.
With thousands of negotiations being conducted by U.S. soldiers in Iraq—from junior to senior leaders—the aggregate effect of successful or failed negotiations has an impact on the ability of the U.S. military to accomplish its mission there as well as meet American strategic goals. The author argues that the military’s strategic success in the future may increasingly depend on an expanded range of training that includes negotiation skills and practice. By analyzing the negotiating experience of U.S. Army and Marine Corps officers in Iraq, he offers recommendations to improve negotiating effectiveness and predeployment negotiation training.
Added February 05, 2007
Type: Book
A Nation at War. Authored by Professor John R. Martin.
One of the basics of strategy is understanding the foe and the type of war in which a nation is involved. The Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) does not fit easily into the mold of war, but that is because of too much comparison with conventional wars; the Cold War may provide a better model. This report chronicles the panels and resulting papers from the Seventeenth Annual U.S. Army War College Strategy Conference, held at Carlisle Barracks, PA, in April 2006.
Added January 01, 2002
Type: Monograph
The Intervention Debate: Towards a Posture of Principled Judgment. Authored by Dr. John Garofano.
The 1990s showed the extremes of deciding when and how to use force, one of the central elements of strategy. Debate has raged over whether force is appropriate only in defense of the homeland and vital national interests or whether it should also be used to promote more expansive objectives. He concludes with a discussion of Army roles and requirements for future contingencies.
Added March 01, 1999
Type: Monograph
Landpower and Ambiguous Warfare: The Challenge of Colombia in the 21st Century. Authored by Dr. Richard Downes.
The meeting highlighted the urgency of the Colombian crisis and the need for a comprehensive response by Colombia, the United States, and the regional community of nations. Much of the dialogue developed the principal subthemes of the conference: the sources of violence; the role of the guerrillas, paramilitaries, and narcotraffickers; the institutional capabilities and responses of the Colombian government and armed forces; and the role of the United States.
Added July 01, 1997
Type: Book
Two Perspectives on Interventions and Humanitarian Operations. Authored by David Tucker, Robert B. Oakley. Edited by Dr. Earl H. Tilford, Jr..
Ambassador Robert B. Oakley, who served as Special Envoy to Somalia provides an honest and compelling look at that controversial operation. In the second paper, Dr. David Tucker dissects the arguments to develop criteria which might be used for and against engagement in humanitarian operations in an attempt to guide U.S. policymakers. Ambassador Oakley and Dr. Tucker both agree that the United States, as a great power, will be engaged in intervention operations of all kinds all over the world.
Added June 01, 1993
Type: Book
Afghanistan and Beyond: Reflections on the Future of Warfare. Authored by Dr. Stephen J. Blank.
This report provides an historical analysis of lessons from one of the most important wars of the 1980s, the war in Afghanistan. After reading this study, you will better understand the nature of operations "other than war" in multiethnic states. Many fear that these wars will set the paradigm for wars in the 1990s and will exert pressure on U.S. forces to conduct peacekeeping, peace-enforcement and humanitarian assistance operations in especially dangerous areas.
Added February 01, 1993
Type: Book
Peacekeeping, Peacemaking and Peace-Enforcement: The U.S. Role in the New International Order. Authored by Dr. Donald M. Snow.
The author examines the bases of American military participation in the array of Third World activities falling under the general rubric of peacekeeping and peace-enforcement. The author then examines the effects of these actions on the principle of sovereignty. He next turns to the emerging roles of peacekeeping and peace-enforcement and the conceptual and practical differences between them, and concludes with some cautionary lessons for the Army.