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Eastern Europe Studies

Added November 25, 2015
Type: Monograph
The Hour of Truth: The Conflict in Ukraine–Implications for Europe’s Energy Security and the Lessons for the U.S. Army. Authored by Dr. Ariel Cohen, Mr. Ivan Benovic.
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Since the breakup of the Soviet Union, a number of gas disputes between Russia and Central and Eastern European countries have unveiled the strategic dependence of Europe on Russian piped gas. The recent Ukrainian crisis demonstrated that Europe has a desperate need to improve the security of its gas supply.
Added March 26, 2015
Type: Other
Project 1704: A U.S. Army War College Analysis of Russian Strategy in Eastern Europe, an Appropriate U.S. Response, and the Implications for U.S. Landpower. Edited by COL Douglas V. Mastriano, LTC Derek O'Malley.
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The 2014 Russian annexation of Crimea and its ongoing war against Ukraine is a turning point in its relations with Europe and the United States. Yet, NATO and the United States are yet to offer a viable strategy on how it will answer this emerging threat. Project 1704 takes a hard look at the changing strategic environment in Europe and offers an approach to maintain stability in Europe.
Added June 26, 2014
Type: Monograph
Democratization and Instability in Ukraine, Georgia, and Belarus. Authored by Dr. Robert Nalbandov.
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Ukraine, Georgia, and Belarus have remarkable variance and incongruence between their levels of democratization, political stability, and economic development. This monograph by Dr. Robert Nalbandov explains the reasons for the different indicators in the three categories and explains the successes and failures of the democratization efforts in three post-Soviet countries.
Added December 10, 2013
Type: Monograph
Politics and Economics in Putin's Russia. Edited by Dr. Stephen J. Blank.
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Is this the beginning of the end for Putin's system? The authors investigate the structural bases for Russia's domestic challenges, if not crisis.
Added August 27, 2013
Type: Letort Papers
The Security Concerns of the Baltic States as NATO Allies. Authored by Dr. James S. Corum.
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America’s small NATO allies have unique views concerning international threats. This monograph explores the security environment of the three Baltic States and how the Baltic policymakers see the future of their relationship with NATO and the United States in an uncertain world.
Added August 13, 2013
Type: Monograph
Development of the Baltic Armed Forces in Light of Multinational Deployments. Authored by Dr. James S. Corum.
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Small NATO allies have become important players in multinational operations. This monograph helps U.S. policymakers and military leaders understand the problems that small allies face when they participate in U.S.-led operations.
Added May 31, 2013
Type: Letort Papers
Return of the Balkans: Challenges to European Integration and U.S. Disengagement. Authored by Mr. Janusz Bugajski.
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For the first time in modern history, the entire Balkan Peninsula has the opportunity to be included under one security and developmental umbrella combining NATO and the European Union. Unfortunately, this historic vision is being undermined by a plethora of political, social, economic, ethnic, and national disputes and the shortcomings of Western institutions in eliminating potential security challenges.
Added September 12, 2012
Type: Monograph
Perspectives on Russian Foreign Policy. Edited by Dr. Stephen J. Blank.
Charles de Gaulle said that states are cold monsters. To see how perhaps one of the coldest of these monsters thinks about and acts in world politics take a look at these essays from SSI’s annual Russia conference of September 26-27, 2011.
Added June 07, 2012
Type: Monograph
Can Russia Reform? Economic, Political, and Military Perspectives. Edited by Dr. Stephen J. Blank.
Can or will Russia reform its state, economy, and armed forces at the same time? These papers provide an answer to those questions.
Added May 22, 2012
Type: Monograph
The Role of Small States in the Post-Cold War Era: The Case of Belarus. Authored by Dr. Dmitry Shlapentokh.
The absence of a single center of power or a few centers of power — as was the case during the Cold War — provides the opportunity even for small states, sandwiched between much stronger states, to move with comparative ease from one center of power to another. Even when small states become finally attached to one of these centers, their attachment is not absolute, and freedom of action is still preserved. This provides the opportunity for small states, such as Belarus, to move from one center of power to another or to engage in a sort of geopolitical gamesmanship.
Added June 15, 2011
Type: Monograph
Military Modernization and the Russian Ground Forces. Authored by Dr. Rod Thornton.
Russia’s political leaders are currently pushing a state- and society-wide process of modernization. How will the deeply conservative Russian military accept and implement those proposed changes?
Added June 09, 2011
Type: Monograph
The Russian Military and the Georgia War: Lessons and Implications. Authored by Dr. Ariel Cohen, Colonel Robert E. Hamilton.
In this monograph, the authors state that Russia planned the war against Georgia in August 2008 aiming for the annexation of Abkhazia, weakening the Saakashvili regime, and prevention of NATO enlargement. According to them, while Russia won the campaign, it also exposed its own military as badly needing reform. The war also demonstrated weaknesses of the NATO and the European Union security systems.
Added July 14, 2010
Type: Book
The Russian Military Today and Tomorrow: Essays in Memory of Mary Fitzgerald. Edited by Dr. Stephen J. Blank, Dr. Richard Weitz.
The essays in this volume represent both a memorial and an analytical call to action. Mary Fitzgerald of the Hudson Institute was one of the most brilliant and vivacious practitioners of the study of the Russian and Chinese militaries, whose insights helped not just to put those fields of study on the map, but also to influence U.S. military thinking.
Added May 21, 2010
Type: Monograph
Implications of a Changing NATO. Authored by COL Phillip R. Cuccia.
What is the future of NATO and what should be included in the new NATO Strategic Concept due to come out at the end of 2010? This monograph takes a look at these questions and offers a few recommendations.
Added December 23, 2009
Type: Monograph
Medvedev's Plan: Giving Russia a Voice but not a Veto in a New European Security System. Authored by Dr. Richard J. Krickus.
The author revisits Medvedev’s proposal and, while some Western analysts deem the conflicting interests and value gap that separate the West from Russia to be overwhelming, others argue that the time has come to engage Russia in seeking a common security agenda in Europe. The most compelling question confronting those who favor a security partnership with Russia is: How to give Russia a voice but not a veto in a new European security system?
Added November 14, 2007
Type: Colloquium Brief
The Evolution of U.S.-Turkish Relations in a Transatlantic Context. Authored by Dr. W. Andrew Terrill.
The Conference’s opening address, entitled, “Turkey’s Future Course: a European Perspective,” was presented by a German legislator with a special interest in European-Turkish relations. The speaker stated that the future of Turkey is both an external and internal issue for Europe. She asserted that the future of Europe depends on the integration of Turkey into Europe and expressed concern that Turkey was not invited to the March 2007 “Fifty Years of Europe” celebration commemorating the moves toward European unity following the Treaties of Rome. This snub sent the wrong message to the Turks.
Added November 05, 2007
Type: Monograph
The Eastern Dimension of America's New European Allies. Authored by Mr. Janusz Bugajski.
Without a realistic prospect for NATO and EU accession, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, and Georgia will become sources of domestic and regional instability and objects of Russia’s neo-imperialist ambitions that will undermine American and European strategic interests.
Added July 02, 2007
Type: Monograph
Political Trends in the New Eastern Europe: Ukraine and Belarus. Authored by Dr. Arkady Moshes, Dr. Vitali Silitski.
In both cases, the interplay of domestic and foreign factors of security is critical to any grasp of the issues in Belarus and Ukraine and thus to sound policy analysis and policymaking in regard to them. This interplay is one of the defining features of the international security agenda that the U.S. Army and the U.S. Government grapple with on a daily basis.
Added June 11, 2007
Type: Monograph
Ukraine's Military Between East and West. Authored by Professor Marybeth Peterson Ulrich.
This fresh look at Ukraine’s movement toward the West since the Orange Revolution examines the progress and limitations of reforming its armed forces. The monograph applies defense reform roadmaps developed in the postcommunist Central European cases in order to suggest a framework to maximize the likelihood of success in Ukraine.
Added May 08, 2006
Type: Op-Ed
Is Eurasia's Security Order at Risk? Authored by Dr. Stephen J. Blank.
Each month a member of the SSI faculty writes an editorial for our monthly newsletter. This is the Op-Ed for the May 2006 newsletter.
Added December 01, 2004
Type: Monograph
U.S.-Ukraine Military Relations and the Value of Interoperability. Authored by Mr. Leonid I. Polyakov.
Experience of recent years demonstrates that troops of post-Soviet Ukraine have been and continue to be a potential coalition partner of the U.S. Army; so success of American future engagement could depend on how these two countries act today to build their interoperability. This monograph provides a comprehensive account of Ukrainian-American defense relations and outlines the lessons learned and challenges ahead for both partners.
Added October 01, 2004
Type: Monograph
Civil-Military Cooperation in Peace Operations: The Case of Kosovo. Authored by Dr. Thomas R. Mockaitis.
The humanitarian intervention in Kosovo illustrates the challenges and possibilities of civil-military cooperation (CIMIC) in peace operations. Properly analyzed, this case study yields invaluable lessons that may inform the conduct of future missions. The current missions in Iraq and Afghanistan make this study timely and relevant.
Added August 01, 2003
Type: Book
War in the Balkans, 1991-2002. Authored by Dr. R. Craig Nation.
This study is one of very few works that attempts to look at the war as a whole It emphasizes the impact of the conflict upon the entire Balkan region, the dynamics of international intervention, and the special role of the U.S. armed forces.
Added July 01, 2003
Type: Monograph
Socio-Economic Roots of Radicalism?: Towards Explaining the Appeal of Islamic Radicals. Authored by Prof. Alan Richards.
The author addresses the critical questions involved in understanding and coping with the roots of Islamic radicalism. He provides particular attention to the links between radicalism and a series of crises associated with modernization in the Islamic World. The result is a thoughtful and probing study including policy recommendations for U.S. military and civilian decisionmakers that makes intelligible the complex subject of Islamic radicalism.
Added March 01, 2003
Type: Monograph
Strategic Effects of Conflict with Iraq: The Middle East, North Africa, and Turkey. Authored by Dr. W. Andrew Terrill.
War with Iraq signals the beginning of a new era in American national security policy and alters strategic balances and relationships around the world. The specific effects of the war, though, will vary from region to region. A U.S. invasion and occupation of Iraq will place popular pressure on a number of moderate Arab states to reduce high profile military cooperation with the United States. Following a war, Saudi Arabia will probably seek to reduce substantially or eliminate the U.S. military presence in the kingdom due to a more limited regional threat and the domestic difficulties with a U.S. presence.
Added August 01, 2002
Type: Monograph
The Future of Transcaspian Security. Authored by Dr. Stephen J. Blank.
Explores the unprecedented opportunities that are now before the U.S. and recommends actions that the Government and armed forces should undertake to consolidate and extend the newly emerging military partnership and cooperative security regime that are now developing. The proper way to exploit them will become a subject of debate.
Added January 01, 2001
Type: Book
The American Army in the Balkans: Strategic Alternatives and Implications. Authored by Dr. Steven Metz.
U.S. strategy in the Balkans and the Army's role there is examined. The author recommends continued U.S. involvement, consideration of a long-term American military presence in the region, and some significant changes in role of the U.S. Army.
Added May 01, 2000
Type: Book
The PLA and the Kosovo Conflict. Authored by Dr. June Teufel-Dreyer.
The Chinese People s Liberation Army (PLA) has also analyzed the Kosovo conflict and drawn its own conclusions. Different groups within the Chinese military drew different judgments. Dr. Dreyer argues that these differences of opinion reflect the considerable diversity of thinking about defense modernization and future war that exists within the PLA today.
Added April 01, 2000
Type: Book
The Future of the American Military Presence in Europe. Edited by Colonel Lloyd J. Matthews, USA Ret..
The present book is an outgrowth of a symposium. With the gradual realization that the Russian menace is essentially dead, at least for the next 10 to 15 years and perhaps longer, and with NATO's missions having evolved well beyond the original purpose of territorial defense, debate on both sides of the Atlantic has begun to intensify.
Added March 01, 2000
Type: Monograph
European Security: Washington's Shaping Strategy in Action. Authored by Dr. Stephen J. Blank, Dr. Thomas-Durell Young, Dr. William T. Johnsen.
Notwithstanding the claims of some in the United States, European affairs continue to dominate U.S. foreign policy and strategic thinking. The end of the Cold War has not seen any blurring of the focus of U.S. officials on European affairs. Managing the implications of the break-up of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact, the seemingly never-ending conflicts in the Balkans, increasing Western norms and institutions in Central and Eastern Europe, and expanding and reforming the North Atlantic Alliance are just some of the issues that require firm and consistent U.S. leadership.
Added August 01, 1999
Type: Book
Mediterranean Security into the Coming Millennium. Edited by Dr. Stephen J. Blank.
The papers included in this volume represent just such an effort to lay a firmer foundation for this continuing dialogue and to bring together different points of view. In October 1998, the Strategic Studies Institute, assisted by Pepperdine University, assembled a distinguished group of analysts from the United States, Europe, and the Middle East, in Florence, Italy.
Added November 01, 1997
Type: Monograph
NATO Enlargement and the Baltic States: What Can the Great Powers Do? Authored by Dr. Stephen J. Blank.
NATO's enlargement has brought it to the borders of the Baltic states who covet membership in NATO. However, admitting them into NATO is one of the most difficult problems for the Alliance because of Russia's unconditional opposition to such action and because of NATO's own internal divisions on this issue. Nonetheless, a new regime or system of security for the entire Baltic region must now be on the U.S. and European agenda.
Added December 01, 1996
Type: Monograph
Force, Statecraft and German Unity: The Struggle to Adapt Institutions and Practices. Edited by Dr. Thomas-Durell Young.
Concerning Bonn's ongoing attempt to adapt institutions and practices, German policy making is clearly a manifestation of officials largely navigating in a little-known policy milieu. Realpolitik, let alone Machtpolitik (either as mere terms, let alone as concepts) are neither freely used in "polite" political discord in Germany, nor widely contemplated.
Added October 01, 1996
Type: Book
Ethnic Conflict and European Security: Lessons from the Past and Implications for the Future. Authored by Ms. Maria Alongi.
On October 23-25, 1995, coinciding with the Bosnia peace talks being held in Dayton, Ohio, Women in International Security (WIIS), an international, nonpartisan educational program; The Friedrich-Eberet Foundation; the U.S. Institute of Peace; and the Army War College's Strategic Studies Institute sponsored a conference, "Ethnic Conflict and European Security: Lessons from the Past and Implications for the Future."
Added June 01, 1996
Type: Book
U.S. Participation in IFOR: A Marathon, not a Sprint. Authored by Dr. William T. Johnsen.
This monograph examines the potential for creating suitable conditions for a lasting political settlement in Bosnia by December 1996, identifies possible outcomes of a U.S. withdrawal from IFOR, and assesses potential consequences for U.S. national objectives and interests within the Balkans, and beyond. The conclusions will not sit well with most in the United States.
Added April 01, 1996
Type: Book
Prague, NATO, and European Security. Authored by Dr. Stephen J. Blank.
One of the most likely candidates for future membership in NATO is the Czech Republic. Inasmuch as the debate over this issue is engaging chancelleries all over the United States and Europe, it is necessary to understand how the prospective members view European security issues, what they hope to gain from membership, and how their interests and security relationships mesh with NATO's.
Added November 01, 1995
Type: Book
Deciphering the Balkan Enigma: Using History to Inform Policy. Authored by Dr. William T. Johnsen.
After having been fueled by the events of the distant and recent past, the current wars in the former Yugoslavia finally may be grinding to a halt. An understanding of that past, and of how history and myth combine to influence the present and help to define the future in the Balkans, is no less relevant today than it was two years ago when the original version of this monograph was published.
Added October 01, 1995
Type: Book
Yugoslavia's Wars: The Problem from Hell. Edited by Dr. Stephen J. Blank.
The continuing warfare in the former Yugoslavia looms as one of the most intractable problems in contemporary world politics. For four years the international community has struggled merely to contain this fire and prevent it from inflaming a general European crisis.
Added August 01, 1995
Type: Book
U.S. Policy in the Balkans: A Hobson's Choice. Authored by Dr. Stephen J. Blank, Dr. William T. Johnsen, Dr. Earl H. Tilford, Jr..
At this writing, the strategic balance may have shifted in the ongoing war in the former Yugoslavia, and the region could be on the verge of a settlement. But, the "window of opportunity" may be fleeting, and the failures and frustrations of the past four years temper any optimism that conflict in the former Yugoslavia will end quickly or completely.
Added October 01, 1994
Type: Monograph
Germany, France and NATO. Authored by Ms. Maria Alongi, Dr. Peter Schmidt.
U.S. national strategy and U.S. Army doctrine explicitly establish the overwhelming need for, and value of, coalitions and alliances in the post-cold war era. Two generations of U.S. civil officials and military officers have been inculcated with the precept of NATO's importance to security and stability in Europe. Free of the confines of the cold war, competing national interests and different national perceptions have transformed the Alliance.
Added September 01, 1994
Type: Monograph
French Policy Toward NATO: Enhanced Selectivity, Vice Rapprochement. Authored by Dr. William T. Johnsen, Dr. Thomas-Durell Young.
The authors of this report explain how French policy toward NATO has changed since 1992. Importantly, they discuss how these changes have been effected. However, certain key elements of French external policy have not changed. In effect, therefore, the authors argue that while France may wish to cooperate with NATO, this does not imply that there will be a more cooperative French attitude toward the Alliance.
Added September 01, 1994
Type: Monograph
Energy and Security in Transcaucasia. Authored by Dr. Stephen J. Blank.
One of the world's enduring regional conflicts is in Nagorno-Karabakh. This war pits local Armenians and their cousins from Armenia against Azerbaidzhan and has enmeshed Russia, Turkey and the Western allies (France, Great Britain, and the United States) in a complex series of regional relationships. The international stakes of this war involve the control over exploration for natural gas and oil and the transhipment of these commodities from Azerbaidzhan to the West. Energy resources represent Azerbaidzhan's primary means of economic modernization and are therefore vital to its economic and political freedom.
Added August 01, 1994
Type: Book
Partnership for Peace: Discerning Fact from Fiction. Authored by Dr. William T. Johnsen, Dr. Thomas-Durell Young.
The authors analyze and assess Partnership for Peace (PfP) from the perspective of the political realities which govern NATO. They counter the critics of PfP with an analysis of its exact provisions. Moreover, by drawing on the Alliance's historical record regarding expansion, they argue that PfP is the best and most realistic means available to resolve the prickly issue of NATO enlargement.
Added July 01, 1994
Type: Book
Proliferation and Nonproliferation in Ukraine: Implications for European and U.S. Security. Authored by Dr. Stephen J. Blank.
Limiting nuclear proliferation is a vital goal of U.S. security policy. With this in mind, the Strategic Studies Institute cosponsored a conference at the University of Pittsburgh on March 16-17, 1994 to deal with the issues involved in achieving this objective.
Added December 01, 1993
Type: Book
Turkey's Strategic Position at the Crossroads of World Affairs. Authored by Dr. Stephen J. Blank, Dr. William T. Johnsen, Dr. Stephen C. Pelletiere.
This report analyzes the implications of Turkey's policies and the reactions of Turkey's neighbors in three discrete chapters. The authors focus their conclusions and options for U.S. policymakers on the effect of Turkish policies in Europe, the Middle East, and the former Soviet republics. The final chapter summarizes their conclusions with respect to the three regions and provides policy options for continuing U.S.-Turkish relations that are so important in the search for peace and stability in these regions.